A consultant radiation oncologist, Dr Oludare Adeyemi of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) yesterday said he achieved a breakthrough in breast cancer when he recently treated a breast cancer patient without mastectomy (the process of removing the breast because of cancer). He described the treatment as microseed treatment which requires using radioactive seeds. In a chat with newsmen, he also advised women to go for regular screening for breast cancer in order to detect the disease early. He said this new procedure was first performed in Canada for about two years, now been practised in a few places in the USA but that he was the first in Africa.
“This Microseeds treatment is the first in the whole of Africa. It has come to Africa through Nigeria,” he said adding that the procedure conserves a breast, adding that conserving a breast is vital for cosmetic reasons. Adeyemi said that Microseeds treatment takes a day procedure, unlike the convention radiotherapy that takes four weeks to be completed.”The procedure is done when Microseeds are placed in the tumour bed under ultrasound-guided” but “it must be emphasized that Microseeds Treatment procedure is only appropriate for now, for early breast cancer”. Dr Adeyemi said the factors that cause breast cancer are main hormonal factors, age, environmental factors and lifestyle. He said the symptoms of breast cancer include: breast lump or thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue, Change in the size, shape or appearance of a breast, Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling. He said breast cancer can be prevented if women familiarise with their breasts through breast self-examination and awareness, exercise most days of the week, maintain a healthy weight and choose a healthy diet.
Former Manchester United star, Gary Neville has slammed midfielders, Fred and Andreas Pereira following their display in the Red Devils’ 3-3 draw against Sheffield United on Sunday.
He also urged Man United manager, Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to sign three experienced players in the January transfer window.
“Ole Gunnar Solskjaer has to go and spend the club’s money in January for himself. He has to go and spend the club’s money on two or three experienced players – he must demand it,” Neville said on Sky Sports’ Monday Night Football.
“Those young lads, he’s not gonna be there to see the fruits of the labour that he’s putting in, the foundations that he’s lying because there’s a lot of good young players out on that pitch.
“But unless they get the players in and around them quickly, they’ll not see the standard and they won’t have the maturity.
Neville added: “Fred and Pereira is not a midfield for a mid-table club, let alone one of the top spending clubs in Europe. “They have got injury problems and other issues in midfield.”
Tottenham Hotspur manager, Jose Mourinho, has said he wants to win the Champions League, for the third time in his career.
Mourinho’s second game in charge of Spurs is the group game with Olympiacos, where a point will send them through to the knockout stages for a third successive year.
The Portuguese have previously won the competition with FC Porto and Inter Milan.
“I love the competition as much as everyone in football.
“It’s something that everybody dreams about, to win it.
“Not everyone has the privilege to be a Champions League winner, which I was happy enough to do twice.
“Do I want to win it a third time? Of course, I would love it but I know the difficulties of it.
“But with these boys, I will never be afraid of any Champions League match that comes into our faces.
“I repeat, we need to qualify, that is the focus. I always say that.
“We have to qualify, but, as I was saying, give me time to work, give me time to float my ideas with these boys and I will have no problem at all going to any stadium at all to face any big opponent in Europe or in England.
“We are not going to be afraid of anybody,” Mourinho told a press conference on Monday.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. It is treatable in the early stages, but without treatment, it can lead to disability, neurological disorders, and even death.
The bacterium Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) causes syphilis. There are four stages of the disease: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary.
In 2018, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) noted that 64%Trusted Source of syphilis presentations involved men who have sex with men. However, the number of cases in heterosexual men and women is also increasingTrusted Source.
Syphilis is treatable with antibiotics, especially in the early stages. It does not resolve without treatment.
In this article, we explain the different stages of syphilis and whether it is curable, as well as how to recognize and treat it.
What is syphilis?
Syphilis is an infection that develops due to T. pallidum bacteria. These bacteria can spread between people through direct contact with a syphilitic sore.
These sores may develop on the skin or mucous membranes of the vagina, anus, rectum, lips, or mouth.
Syphilis is most likely to spread during oral, anal, or vaginal sexual activity. People rarely pass the bacteria on through kissing.
The first sign is a painless sore on either the genitals, rectum, mouth, or another part of the skin. Some people do not notice the sore, as it does not cause pain.
These sores resolve on their own. However, if a person does not receive treatment, the bacteria remain in the body. They can remain dormant in the body for decadesTrusted Source before reactivating and damaging organs, including the brain.
Doctors categorize the stage of syphilis as either primary, secondary, latent, or tertiary. A variety of symptoms define each stage.
The disease can be contagiousTrusted Source during the primary and secondary stages and, occasionally, the early latent phase. Tertiary syphilis is not contagious, but it has the most severe symptoms.
The symptoms of primary syphilis include one or more painless, firm, and round syphilitic sores, or chancres. These appear 10 days to 3 months after the bacteria enter the body.
Chancres resolve within 2–6 weeks. However, without treatment, the disease may remain in the body and progress to the next phase.
Secondary syphilis symptoms include:
* Sores that resemble oral, anal, and genital warts * A nonitchy, rough, red or red-brown rash that starts on the trunk and spreads to the entire body, including the palms and soles * Muscle aches * Fever * A sore throat * Swollen lymph nodes * Patchy hair loss * Headaches * Unexplained weight loss * Fatigue
These symptoms may resolve a few weeks after they first appear. They might also return several times over a longer period.
Without treatment, secondary syphilis can progress to the latent and tertiary stages.
The latent phase can last for several years. During this time, the body will harbor the disease without symptoms.
However, the T. pallidum bacteria remain dormant in the body, and there is always a risk of recurrence. Doctors still recommend treating syphilis at this stage, even if symptoms do not occur.
After the latent phase, tertiary syphilis may develop.
Tertiary syphilis, or late syphilis
Tertiary syphilis can occur 10–30 yearsTrusted Source after the onset of the infection, usually after a period of latency during which there are no symptoms.
At this stage, syphilis damages the following organs and systems:
* Heart * Blood vessels * Liver * Bones * Joints
Gummas may also develop. These are soft tissue swellings that can occur anywhere on the body.
Organ damage means that tertiary syphilis can often lead to death. Treating syphilis before it reaches this stage is, therefore, critical.
Neurosyphilis is a condition that develops when T. pallidum bacteria have spread to the nervous system. It often has links to latent and tertiary syphilis. However, it can occur at any time after the primary stage.
A person with neurosyphilis may be asymptomatic for a long time. Alternatively, symptoms might develop gradually.
Symptoms includeTrusted Source:
* Dementia or altered mental status * Abnormal gait * Numbness in the extremities * Problems with concentration * Confusion * Headache or seizures * Vision problems or vision loss * Weakness
Congenital syphilis is severe and frequently life threatening. T. pallidum bacteria can transfer from a pregnant woman to a fetus through the placenta and during the birth process.
Data suggest that without screening and treatment, about 70% of women with syphilis will have an adverse outcome in pregnancy.
Adverse outcomes include early fetal or neonatal death, preterm birth or low birth weight, and infection in infants.
Symptoms in newborns include:
* Saddle nose, in which the bridge of the nose is missing * Fever * Difficulty gaining weight * A rash of the genitals, anus, and mouth * Small blisters on the hands and feet that change to a copper colored rash, which may be bumpy or flat, and spread to the face * Watery nasal fluid
Older infants and young children may experience:
* Hutchinson teeth, or abnormal, peg shaped teeth * Bone pain * Vision loss * Hearing loss * Joint swelling * Saber shins, a bone problem in the lower legs * Scarring of the skin around the genitals, anus, and mouth * Gray patches around the outer vagina and anus
In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed Cuba as the first country in the worldTrusted Source to have entirely eradicated congenital syphilis.
Is it curable?
Anyone who is worried that they might have syphilis or another sexually transmitted infection (STI) should speak to a doctor as soon as possible, as prompt treatment can cure it.
Early treatment with penicillin is important, as the disease can lead to life threatening consequences in the long term.
At a later stage, syphilis remains curable. However, a person may require a longer course of penicillin.
If nerve or organ damage occurs during the later stages of syphilis, treatment will not repair it. Treatment can, however, prevent further damage by clearing the bacteria from a person’s body.
Treatment for syphilis can be successful, particularly in the early stages.
The treatment strategy will depend on the symptoms and how long a person has harbored the bacteria. However, during the primary, secondary, or tertiary stage, people with syphilis will typically receive an intramuscular injection of penicillin G benzathine.
Tertiary syphilis will require multiple injections at weekly intervals.
Neurosyphilis requires intravenous (IV) penicillin every 4 hours for 2 weeks to remove the bacteria from the central nervous system.
Curing the infection will prevent further damage to the body, and safe sexual practices can resume. However, treatment cannot undo any damageTrusted Source that has already occurred.
People with a penicillin allergy can sometimes use an alternative medication in the early stages. However, during pregnancy and in the tertiary stages, anyone with an allergy will undergo penicillin desensitization to allow for safe treatment.
Following delivery, newborn infants with syphilis should undergo antibiotic treatment.
Chills, fever, nausea, achy pain, and a headache may occur on the first day of treatment. Doctors refer to these symptomsTrusted Source as a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. It does not indicate that a person should stop treatment.
When is it safe to have sex?
People with syphilis must avoid sexual contact until they have completed all treatment and received blood test results confirming that the disease has resolved.
It may take several months for blood tests to show that syphilis has reduced to an appropriate level. Low enough levels confirm adequate treatment.
Tests and diagnosis
A doctor will carry out a physical examination and ask about a person’s sexual history before carrying out clinical tests to confirm syphilis.
* Blood tests: These can detect a current or past infection, as antibodies to the syphilis bacteria will be present for many years. * Bodily fluid: A doctor can evaluate fluid from a chancre during the primary or secondary stage. * Cerebrospinal fluid: A doctor may collect this fluid through a spinal tap and examine it to monitor the disease’s effects on the nervous system.
If a person receives a diagnosis of syphilis, they must notify any sexual partners. Their partners should also undergo testing.
Local services are available to notify sexual partners of their potential exposure to syphilis, enable testing and, if necessary, administer treatment.
Healthcare professionals will also recommend testing for HIV.
When to receive testing
Many people with an STI will not be aware of it. Therefore, it is a good idea to talk to a doctor or request a test in the following situations:
* After having unprotected sex * Having a new sex partner * Having multiple sex partners * A sexual partner receiving a diagnosis of syphilis * A man having sex with different men * Symptoms of syphilis being present
Syphilis develops when T. pallidum transfer from one person to another during sexual activity.
The infection can pass from a woman to a fetus during pregnancy or to an infant during delivery. This type is called congenital syphilis.
Syphilis cannot spreadTrusted Source through shared contact with objects, such as doorknobs, eating utensils, and toilet seats.
Sexually active people are at risk of contracting syphilis. Those most at risk include:
* People who have unprotected sex * Men who have sex with men * People living with HIV * Individuals with more than one sexual partner
Syphilitic sores also increase the risk of contracting HIV.
Preventive measures to decrease the risk of syphilis include:
* Abstaining from sex * Maintaining long term mutual monogamy with a partner who does not have syphilis * Using a condom, although these only protect against genital sores and not those that develop elsewhere on the body * Using a dental dam, or plastic square, during oral sex * Avoiding sharing sex toys * Refraining from alcohol and drugs that could potentially lead to unsafe sexual practices
Having syphilis once does not mean that a person has protection from it going forward. Even after treatment has successfully removed syphilis from a person’s body, it is possible for them to contract it again.
It’s good to check in with yourself from time to time to see how you’re feeling about your relationship. The questions below focus on romantic and sexual relationships, but they can apply to other kinds of relationships, too. After you’ve asked yourself these questions, it could be helpful to answer them again from your partner’s perspective.
Does your partner listen to and respect your ideas?
Does your partner give you space to spend time with your friends and family?
Do you have fun spending time together?
Do you feel comfortable telling your partner when something they do upsets you?
Do you feel comfortable sharing your thoughts and feelings?
Can you tell your partner what you like sexually?
Does your partner make an effort to get along with your friends and family?
Is your partner proud of your accomplishments and successes?
Does your partner respect your differences?
Can you talk to your partner about birth control and/or safer sex?
Relationships can be complicated, but if you answered “yes” to all of these questions, there’s a good chance you’re in a healthy relationship. If you answered “no” to two or more questions, you might be in an
Herpes is an infection caused by HSV (herpes simplex virus). This virus affects the external genitalia, anal region, mucosal surfaces, and skin in other parts of the body.
Herpes is a long-term condition. However, many people never have symptoms even though they are carrying the virus.
Symptoms include blisters, ulcers, pain when urinating, cold sores, and vaginal discharge. Although there is no cure for herpes, it can be treated using medications and home remedies.
In this article, we discuss the symptoms of herpes, how to treat it, and how to avoid it.
Fast facts about herpes:
* There are two types of herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 (herpes type 1, or oral herpes) and HSV-2 (herpes type 2, or genital herpes). * More than 50 percent of people in the United States have HSV-1. * Around 15.5 percent of people in the U.S. aged 14-49 have HSV-2. * Receiving oral sex from somebody who has cold sores around their mouth significantly raises the risk of becoming infected. * It is impossible to get genital herpes from a toilet seat.
Most people do not experience symptoms for months or years after becoming infected. Those who do have symptoms during the initial period will usually notice them about 4 days after exposure (the average range is 2-12 days).
Many people with HSV have recurring herpes. When a person is first infected, the recurrences tend to happen more frequently. Over time, however, the remission periods get longer, and each occurrence tends to become less severe.
Primary infection symptoms
Primary infection is a term used for an outbreak of genital herpes that occurs when a person is first infected. The symptoms can be quite severe and may include:
* Blisters and ulceration on external genitalia, in the vagina, or on the cervix * Vaginal discharge * Pain and itching * Tender, enlarged lymph nodes * Pain when urinating * High temperature (fever) * Malaise (feeling unwell) * Cold sores around the mouth * Red blisters on the skin
In most cases, the ulcers will heal, and the individual will not have any lasting scars.
Recurrent infection symptoms
Symptoms that occur in a recurrent infection tend to be less severe and do not last as long as they do in the primary infection stage. Typically, symptoms will last no more than 10 days and include:
* Burning or tingling around genitals before blisters appear * Women may have blisters and ulceration on the cervix * Cold sores around the mouth * Red blisters
Eventually, recurrences happen less often and are much less severe.
When HSV is present on the surface of the skin of an infected person, it can easily be passed on to someone else through the moist skin that lines the mouth, anus, and genitals. The virus may also spread to another individual through other areas of skin, as well as the eyes.
A human cannot become infected with HSV by touching an object, work surface, washbasin, or towel that has been touched by an infected person. Infection can occur in the following ways:
* Having unprotected vaginal or anal sex * Having oral sex with a person who gets cold sores * Sharing sex toys * Having genital contact with an infected person
The virus is most likely to be passed on just before the blister appears, when it is visible, and until the blister is completely healed. HSV can still be transmitted to another person when there are no signs of an outbreak, although it is less likely.
If a mother with genital herpes has sores while giving birth, it is possible that the infection will be passed on to the baby.
There are a variety of treatment options. These include:
Several home remedies can help, including:
* Taking painkillers, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen * Bathing in lightly salted water helps relieve symptoms * Soaking in a warm sitz bath * Applying petroleum jelly to the affected area * Avoiding tight clothing around the affected area * Washing hands thoroughly, especially after touching the affected area * Refraining from sexual activity until symptoms have gone * If urinating is painful, apply some cream or lotion to the urethra, for example, lidocaine
Some people find that using ice packs can help. Never apply ice directly to the skin, always wrap it in a cloth or towel first.
No drug can get rid of the herpes virus. Doctors may prescribe an antiviral, such as acyclovir, which prevents the virus from multiplying. Antiviral medications will help the outbreak clear up faster and will also help reduce the severity of symptoms.
Doctors usually prescribe antivirals the first time a person has symptoms. As recurrent outbreaks are usually mild, treatment is not usually necessary.
Episodic treatment and suppressive treatment
Episodic treatment is generally for people who have less than six recurrences in 1 year. Doctors may prescribe a 5-day course of antivirals each time symptoms appear.
Doctors prescribe suppressive treatment if a person experiences more than six recurrences in a year. In some cases, a doctor my recommend that the individual takes daily antiviral treatment indefinitely. The aim here is to prevent further recurrences. Although suppressive treatment significantly reduces the risk of passing HSV to a partner, there is still a risk.
To reduce the risk of developing or passing on genital herpes:
* Use condoms when having sex * Do not have sex while symptoms are present (genital, anal, or skin-to-skin) * Do not kiss when there is a cold sore around the mouth * Do not have many sexual partners
Some people find that stress, being tired, illness, friction against the skin, or sunbathing may trigger recurrences of symptoms. Identifying and avoiding these triggers may help reduce the number of recurrences.
Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted disease, sometimes referred to as “the clap.” It affects hundreds of thousands of men and women annually in the United States.
Globally, there are an estimated 78 millionTrusted Source new cases of gonorrhea diagnosed each year. In the United States alone, there are an estimated 820,000Trusted Source new gonorrhea infections each year. However, not all cases are diagnosed and reported; only 333,004 cases of gonorrhea were reported in the U.S. in 2013.
Gonorrhea is easily treated but can cause serious and sometimes permanent complications. Pelvic inflammatory disease occurs in women when the gonorrhea infection affects their uterus or fallopian tubes. The most serious complication associated with pelvic inflammatory disease is infertility.
Complications in men with gonorrhea include epididymitis (an inflammation of the tube which carries sperm) and infertility.
Fast facts on gonorrhea
* Gonorrhea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. * Gonorrhea can be passed from mother to baby during delivery. * Gonorrhea and chlamydia can be experienced simultaneously. * If untreated, gonorrhea can increase a person’s risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV.
Symptoms may be absent despite an active gonorrheal infection. Symptoms can appear anywhere from 1-14 days following exposure to the infection.
Men and women experience slightly different symptoms; these can include:
* White, yellow, or green urethral discharge, resembling pus * Inflammation or swelling of the foreskin * Pain in the testicles or scrotum * Painful or frequent urination * Anal discharge, itching, pain, bleeding, or pain when passing stools * Itching, difficulty swallowing, or swollen neck lymph nodes * Eye pain, light sensitivity, or eye discharge resembling pus * Red, swollen, warm, painful joints
* Painful sexual intercourse * Fever * Yellow or green vaginal discharge * Vulvar swelling * Bleeding in-between periods * Heavier periods * Bleeding after intercourse * Vomiting and abdominal or pelvic pain * Painful or frequent urination * Sore throat, itching, difficulty swallowing, or swollen neck lymph nodes * Eye pain, light sensitivity, and eye discharge resembling pus * Red, swollen, warm, painful joints
Anal gonorrhea signs include:
* Itching, bleeding, or pain with passing bowel movements * Anal discharge
An itching or burning sensation in the eyes may be a symptom of conjunctivitis. If infected semen or fluid comes into contact with the eyes, a person can develop conjunctivitis.
Upon displaying symptoms, a doctor may recommend a test for gonorrhea in addition to other diseases. Testing for gonorrhea can be completed by analyzing a urine sample or a swab of an affected area. Swab samples are commonly taken from the penis, cervix, urethra, anus, and throat.
Home kits for women are also available that include vaginal swabs. These kits are sent to a laboratory and results are reported directly to the patient.
If testing is positive for a gonorrhea infection, the individual and their partner will need to undergo treatment. This typically involves:
* Antibiotics. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Trusted Sourcerecommend a single dose of 250 milligrams of intramuscular ceftriaxone and 1 gram of oral azithromycin. They urge people to take all the medication a doctor prescribes and not to share it with anyone else. * Abstaining from sexual intercourse. Until treatment is complete, there is still a risk of complications and spread of infection. * Repeat testing in some cases. It is not always necessary to be tested to make sure the treatment has worked. However, the CDC recommend retesting for some patients, and a doctor will decide if it is necessary. Retesting should be performed 7 days after treatment.
The CDC note that it is becoming harder to treat gonorrhea because of antiobiotic resistance. If symptoms do not improve after a few days, it is best to return to the doctor.
If a woman is pregnant and infected with gonorrhea, the infant will be given an eye ointmentTrusted Source to prevent gonorrhea transmission. However, antibiotics may be required if an eye infection develops.
The League Management Company (LMC), organisers of the Nigeria Professional Football League (NPFL), have imposed sanctions on Nasarawa United Football Club of Lafia, one of their players and two backroom staff.
GIFTALWORLD reports that the sanctions were in the wake of the disturbances which trailed the club’s Match Day 4 fixture in Lafia on Wednesday.
The club will now play all their home matches behind closed doors indefinitely with some financial penalties, while a player, Seun Komolafe, will serve a one-year ban.
Their Curator, Aliyu Hamzat, is to serve a life ban from all NPFL match venues and activities, while the Media Officer, Eche Amos, has also been fined and cautioned.
A statement by the LMC late on Friday in Abuja disclosed that all the sanctions were to come into effect immediately.
‘’Komolafe is to serve a one-year ban starting immediately for accosting and assaulting the match officials and for inciting the club supporters to commit violence against match officials in the match against Plateau United in breach of Rule C11 and C1.3.
‘’Hazmat has been banned for life from participating in all NPFL match venues and activities for leading the attack on the referee and other match officials in violation of Rule C11 of the Framework and Rules of the NPFL.
‘’Amos was sanctioned for breach of Rule C1, for releasing or causing to be released a written press statement unfairly criticising match officials, a conduct deemed capable of bringing the League to disrepute.
‘’He is to pay a fine of 100,000 Naira, with a warning to desist from such conduct,’’ the statement indicated.
It showed further that Nasarawa United were charged for breaches of Rule B13.18, B13.52.1, B13.52.2 and C1 for which they were fined a cumulative fine of 4,250,000 Naira.
This includes a 1,250,000 Naira compensation for the assaulted match officials.
‘’Under Rule B1.18, the club was charged for the action of its supporters who threw objects, including stones towards match officials.
‘’This attracted a fine of one million Naira, while another fine of one million Naira was also imposed on the club for failure to ensure adequate crowd control and prevention of access by unauthorized persons to a restricted area which led to the attack on match officials as they headed to the dressing room.
‘’This is considered a breach of Rules B13.52.1 and B13.52.2.’’
Nasarawa United were also charged for breach of Rule C1, punishable by virtue of Rule B15.17, for conducts capable of bringing the game to disrepute.
This was through the action of some of their supporters, a player and an official of the club in assaulting match officials and causing disturbances.
This also attracted a fine of one million Naira and another 1,250,000 Naira to be paid as compensation to the match officials pursuant to Rule C12.
In addition, they will be responsible for the costs of all verified medical expenses of the assaulted match officials.
The statement added that Nasarawa United have 10 working days to pay the imposed fines, otherwise further disciplinary actions would be imposed.
The LMC further issued an order of closure of gates to fans for all Nasarawa United home matches for an indefinite period.
New research led by scientists at Leeds University in the United Kingdom suggests that a diet rich in legumes and fish may put off the natural onset of menopause, while foods rich in carbohydrates may accelerate it.
The age at which a person experiences their menopause can impact their health in various ways.
In fact, in addition to the inability to become pregnant, premature menopause (or getting menopause before 40) or early menopause (occurring at ages 40–45) can bring with it numerous complications.
A loss of bone density, a higher risk of heart disease, and a loss of sexual desire are only some of the consequences of premature or early menopause.
Experiencing one’s menopause at a later age, on the other hand, might have some health benefits. For instance, a recent study suggested that a later menopause onset might keep cognitive decline at bay in senior women.
Given these health effects, knowing which factors influence the onset of menopause is important.
This is what prompted Yashvee Dunneram, who is a researcher at the School of Food Science and Nutrition at the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom, and colleagues to conduct a study on the link between diet and menopause onset.
Studying diet and menopause onset
In addition to information about the age at which these women got their menopause, the study included information on potential confounding factors such as weight and reproductive history, physical activity levels, and hormone replacement therapy use.
Using the data drawn from food frequency questionnaires, the researchers were able to estimate the daily intake of 217 food items that the participants consumed.
Of all the women, 914 experienced menopause naturally between the ages of 40 and 65.
How carbs, fish, legumes affect menopause
On average, the age at which the women got their menopause was 51, and the study found that certain food items were linked with the timing of this onset.
Specifically, each portion of carbohydrates, such as pasta and rice, consumed per day correlated with experiencing menopause 1.5 years earlier.
By contrast, for each daily portion of fish and fresh legumes, such as peas and beans, the delay in menopause onset was of over 3 years. Additionally, a higher daily consumption of vitamin B-6 and zinc was also associated with later menopause.
When comparing vegetarians with meat eaters, the researchers found that eating meat was linked with a 1-year delay in menopause onset.
Among women who had not had any children, a higher intake of grapes and poultry was linked with later menopause.
“Our findings confirm that diet may be associated with the age at natural menopause. This may be relevant at a public health level since age at natural menopause may have implications on future health outcomes.”
Free radicals may play a role
This was an observational study, so it cannot explain causality. However, the scientists speculate on some potential mechanisms behind the associations that they found.
Their explanation involves reactive oxygen speciesTrusted Source, which are free radicalsTrusted Source, or oxygen-containing molecules believed to damage our DNA.
The maturation of eggs and their release, says the team, are affected negatively by reactive oxygen species. But legumes contain antioxidants, which might counter these negative effects and delay the onset of menopause.
Also, omega-3 fatty acids, which can be found in oily fish, are thought to trigger antioxidant activity within the human body.
By contrast, refined carbs are thought to be a risk factor for insulin resistance, which, in turn, may increase estrogen production, leading to an early menopause onset
Most women can continue with their everyday activities during pregnancy and only need to make some minor lifestyle changes. The health and well-being of both the woman and the developing fetus are of primary concern during pregnancy, so it is best to avoid consuming certain foods and doing potentially risky activities.
In this article, we discuss 13 things not to do while pregnant and explain why they can be problematic:
When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol crosses the placenta and can affect the fetus. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
A fetus that gets exposure to alcohol in the womb may develop a wide range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These disorders can cause the following health issues:
* Physical abnormalities * Intellectual disabilities * Behavioral problems * Seizures * Poor growth * Developmental delays * Reduced coordination and fine motor skills
Researchers are unsure how much alcohol, if any, it is safe to consume during pregnancy, so most doctors recommend that pregnant women avoid alcohol completely.
Eating certain foods
It is common for pregnant women to avoid certain foods during pregnancy, either due to a change in their sense of smell or because the food makes them feel ill. However, there are some foods that all pregnant women should avoid eating. These include:
* Lunch meat and deli salads: Deli meats and foods, such as premade chicken salad, may contain listeria. Listeria is a bacteria that can cross the placenta and may be deadly for the fetus. * Unpasteurized juice and dairy: As with deli meats, unpasteurized dairy products and juices can contain listeria and other bacteria that may cause food poisoning. * Some soft cheeses: Certain soft cheese may contain unpasteurized dairy, particularly imported soft cheeses, such as brie, feta, and queso blanco. * Fish high in mercury: Swordfish, shark, and mackerel are among the fish that contain high levels of mercury. According to March of Dimes, exposing the fetus to mercury may cause brain damage or hearing and vision problems. * Raw meat and fish: Raw meat and fish, including sushi and raw oysters, can contain both salmonella and toxoplasmosis. Pregnant women have an increased risk of getting foodborne illness from these pathogens. Foodborne illness may cause dehydration, fever, and intrauterine sepsis, a blood infection that can be deadly to the fetus. * Raw eggs: Raw eggs can also contain salmonella. Pregnant women should avoid any foods that may contain raw eggs, such as unbaked cookie dough or homemade Caesar salad dressing.
Too much caffeine
In the same way as alcohol, caffeine can cross the placenta and affect the fetus.
While much of the data regarding pregnancy and caffeine consumption is inconclusive, researchTrusted Source suggests that it is best to limit the intake of caffeine to 300 milligrams (mg) per day. Some experts believe that quantities greater than this can be harmful to the fetus and may increase the risk of pregnancy loss and low birth weight.
March of Dimes recommend that pregnant women consume no more than 200 mg of caffeine per day. This amounts to about 1.5 cups of coffee per day.
Hot tubs, saunas, and overheating
While relaxing in hot water may sound like an effective way to ease pregnancy discomfort, experts recommend avoiding hot tubs and saunas.
According to the American Pregnancy Association, hot tubs can cause hyperthermia, or abnormally high body temperature, which may lead to congenital abnormalities.
Additional activities that may cause the body temperature to rise too high include:
* Hot yoga or Pilates * Sunbathing for too long * Exposure to extreme heat * Strenuous exercise * Dehydration
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that pregnant women avoid contact sports, such as football or boxing.
Contact sports increase the risk of placental abruption, which is the premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall. Placental abruption is a severe condition that can cause preterm birth, pregnancy loss, or stillbirth.
Pregnant women are also more prone to injury as hormonal changes in the body cause the ligaments to become looser.
Activities with a fall risk
After the first trimester, pregnant women should avoid any activity which carries the risk of falling, including skiing, ice-skating, and rock climbing.
During pregnancy, the center of gravity shifts as the belly expands, so even a minor fall may result in injuries.
Amusement park rides
Many amusement parks do not allow pregnant women on some rides, including roller coasters or any rides that may start or stop suddenly.
The jarring motion of these rides can cause placental abruption.
Changing a litter box
Pregnant women should avoid changing a litter box. Cleaning dirty litter boxes can put a person at risk of toxoplasmosis.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, if a pregnant woman passes toxoplasmosis to the fetus, the baby may develop severe symptoms, including:
Smoking cigarettes during pregnancy can cause harm to both the woman and the baby. Aside from an increased risk of heart disease and lung cancer, smoking when pregnant can also causeTrusted Source the following problems during and after pregnancy:
* Premature birth * Congenital abnormalities, such as cleft lip or cleft palate * Sudden infant death syndrome * Issues with the placenta
Women should stop smoking as soon as they know that they are pregnant and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. Women who are struggling to quit smoking can talk to a doctor about the help and additional resources that are available.
While illegal drug use is always dangerous, it can be even more harmful during pregnancy.
Using illegal drugs or misusing certain prescription drugs can cause a newborn to go through neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). A baby with NAS will go through substance withdrawal at birth.
Additionally, drug use can increase the risk of stillbirth, pregnancy loss, and congenital abnormalities.
Taking certain medications
Pregnant women should avoid some over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications while pregnant, as these can harm the fetus.
Doctors recommend avoiding the following medications while pregnant:
* Ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) * Most herbal remedies * ACE inhibitors * Some cold medications during the first trimester * Cold and flu medications that contain specific ingredients * Some acne medications
A doctor or pharmacist can provide advice on which medications are safe to use and can often recommend alternatives if women can no longer take their regular medicines.
Some types of exercise
Although doctors recommend that most pregnant women exercise, certain types of exercise are not suitable during pregnancy.
Pregnant women should try to avoid exercise that involves:
* Bouncing, leaping, and jumping * Sudden changes in direction * Jarring or jerky movements * Abdominal exercises on the back, such as situps, after the first trimester
Many exercises, such as walking, swimming, and squats, can be beneficial during pregnancy. It is best to speak to a doctor about any existing or new exercise routines.
Pregnant women can carry on with most of their normal activities as long as they take some necessary precautions. When in doubt, it is best to check with a doctor about activity restrictions during pregnancy.
Some pregnant women, particularly those with a higher risk of preterm labor or other complications, may need to restrict additional activities that this article does not list.